resources of the country, a responsible attitude
Three generations of Chinese real estate reform
from since December 2009, a real estate regulation, has a huge impact on the market currently, whether it is used room or 一手房 of, whether it is a chain or a year, whether it is sales or price, compared to 2009 can be said to have appeared greenish yellow repeated, but the market changes, different opinions, some people think the only short-term the good old days of real estate line in the past.
author's humble opinion, the current round of real estate regulation and the resulting change in the situation is indeed not a general change, it indicates that China's real estate reform really into people's livelihood oriented to housing protection is the focus of new second-generation change course
the welfare housing system under the planned economy to a sale of real estate, the Chinese real estate experience of the first generation of reforms from the commercialization of to really increase social efforts to protect the real estate industry is entering a second generation of reforms. Looking ahead, the land system to the people the direction of change, the Chinese real estate will be the third generation reforms.
I will review from a planned economy to a market economy, from The single market is parallel to the market to protect, and then in the land market and the people on the basis of three generations of Chinese real estate reform.
first-generation reforms: from welfare housing to the sale of real estate
planned economy, all control government hands, housing construction and distribution is no exception. .1982, the State Council after the reform and opening in September 1980, the Beijing housing system built office first listed, the establishment of the Beijing Municipal Development Corporation, opened a prelude to the real estate development houses, the pilot in four cities 1987 to 1991, the initial stage of the Chinese real estate market in 1991, the State Council has approved the overall housing reform program in 24 provinces and cities, indicates that China began to have real estate, but it was mainly exported room mainly domestic welfare housing system has not been canceled. the so-called export Room, is a historical phenomenon in the real estate industry towards a market economy process, refers to the large number of houses purchased by non-Chinese people from the mainland.
China's reform and more to the South first the background of welfare housing. in the era of planned economy is still strong, real estate, this new thing is the same the first in the South bud, but when the real estate market is still just a spark, the nationwide significance of the market is still far from forming. , real estate investment market is quite small, the early stage of industry development, supply and demand is extremely unreasonable false prosperity had led to Chinese real estate in a recession, but also gradually became aware of the need for market-oriented way, in the throes of
1993 to 1997, real estate market into a small period of adjustment during which the industry has strong the recovery of market orientation is becoming increasingly clear, the ideological foundation for the quick start of the Chinese real estate market in the future savings.
in 1998, the Asian financial crisis and the sudden become a booster of China's housing reform, the first generation of reforms of the Chinese real estate the curtain went up on July 3, .1998, as the start, the real estate industry in China was put on 10 years of rapid development Avenue. the notification clearly stated objectives of the reform is: Stop the housing distribution in kind, the progressive introduction of the housing system; to establish and improve the affordable housing based level urban housing supply system; the development of housing finance, nurture and regulate the housing market. notification is worth noting that there are two, one is the new channels, that is completely broken the premise of the original welfare housing distribution system, construction to the commercialization of the trading oriented housing construction and allocation of new market-oriented system, and stressed that this system is affordable housing and the other is to focus on supporting the reform, financial reform started in the same time, housing reform, added the concept of the development of housing finance. That year, the People's Bank of China, individual housing loan management approach promulgated expressly agreed in the purchase of not less than 30% of the housing the full price as buyers down payment, in order to motivate residents to purchase, is this article greatly promote the formation of the Chinese real estate market a few years later also became the fuse to ignite the universal real estate. reform achievements of the first generation of Chinese real estate is self-evident from 1997-2007, the Chinese room annual growth rate of real estate is almost always more than twice the GDP growth rate over the same period In 1997, after deducting the land acquisition costs of real estate development and investment to gross domestic product accounted for 3.9%, has been increased to 10.3% in 2007. the proportion of urban fixed asset investment reached 21.5% real estate development has greatly stimulated the growth of the national economy. According to authoritative estimates, housing construction, the impact on GDP is about 10%, housing construction increased by 10 percentage points, will be able to drive GDP growth of 1 percentage point; for every 100 yuan of housing construction funds, and related industries could create demand for 170-220 yuan; $ 100 per sale housing, driven by 130-150 yuan demand for commodities By this calculation, China's GDP growth by about 20-30% is driven by the real estate industry, real estate and thus deservedly become China's economic China's economy to an annual high-speed growth, real estate has played a decisive role.
gold real estate development, China has withstood the greatest in human history, the impact of the wave of urbanization. when the crowd waves like Bay into the city, the per capita living space of the Chinese people not only did not reduce,ray ban sunglasses
, but the average annual increase of more than 1 square meters, from the number of square meters per capita in 1978, 1993, 18 square meters per capita to the current per capita of nearly 30 square meters; China is not only frequent history of shantytowns, slums, but continues to rise of a modern city. This is the Nobel laureate economist Douglas. true praise by Northrop in the rise of the West , the complaints may be more and more, but no room to have room from Tongzilou to the garden house, the Chinese people really getting better and better live
second-generation reforms: soaring house prices, the uneven distribution with protection for the dominant second-generation reforms
stems from the economic crisis, the purpose is to eliminate the first-generation reforms of the economic crisis, Chinese real estate from the outset with the characteristics of a strong With the start of the housing consumption, its purpose is only to stimulate economic growth, the government did not think, but did not take the initiative to assume the public responsibility in the housing sector, the Government must bear due to the cause of the bias of the Chinese real estate development.
the first generation of housing reform the initial years, the Government for the purpose of growth, macroeconomic regulation and control of real estate is quite relaxed. more than four years from 1999 to 2003, the policy generally remain within a broad framework, the basic autonomic regulation by the market , affordable housing, multi-level residential system was first enacted by the Government in the great temptation of the real estate interests, gradually into the the eight years, the total investment by China's low-rent housing construction funds just over 70 billion, a far cry from the annual demand of 50 billion of funds, the national total of low-rent housing Shiwupeizu only 200,000 units present, guaranteeing that masses of 10 square meters and families living close to 4 million, the national statistics of the housing difficulties of low-income people is about 10 million, which means that there are over 3000 people per capita housing area of 10 square meters of real estate in the end improve the quality of life of the Chinese people, or are the people to the cliff to push? on this issue has split, has been unable to reach a consensus, the reform must restart in a full rosy situation of the national property market, in 2003, the State Council to promote sustained and healthy development of the real estate market (18) introduced housing supply main real estate alternative,oakley sunglasses for sale
, affordable housing from the housing supply subject commodity housing policy kite string, began to enter the fast growth track.
Blue Book report under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, 1998-2003, National Commodity housing price per square meter increased by only 343 yuan to the full implementation of the 18th file year eleven in 2004, the price per square meter than last year jumped 352 yuan which prices push hands are released by the Central Bank in 2003 Ministry of Land Resources, Ministry of Supervision jointly issued a notice on commercial land use rights to continue bidding auction of the transfer situation law enforcement work. the former to raise the lending threshold makes small and medium-sized real estate companies annexation of large enterprises, exacerbated the trade monopoly , reducing the supply of real estate; which makes premium to state-owned land use rights to public bidding, auction, listing to sell significant increase in prices is expected to form a society as a whole, co-created the myth of the house prices have soared. in 2003,
, prices are about 4-5 times the general household income, more in line with household affordability. But with the rise in house prices, and soon the prices of some cities to break through this line of defense, even to the 14-15 times.
prices soaring, seething popular discontent ultimately made since 2005, the government had the stability of prices as a starting point for policy formulation, has promulgated the notice, but unfortunately,christian louboutin shoes
, the release control measures do not hit the key, the momentum of soaring house prices but intensified in August, .2007, clearly to solve the low-income family housing difficulties in the Government's public service functions from the protection of housing construction have on all levels of government work plan and expenditure arrangements
in 2008, China's economy suffered the global financial tsunami impact experienced a no less than the most difficult economic year has become the real estate is the most crazy year, the property market in 2009, are booming again a surprising. Although China's economic success the rise of the bubble to make the real estate became the target of the tilt wheel apparently has been unable to move on. the other hand, the world economy in 2010 optimistic about China's economic recovery is generally good (the author's judgment is compared with the mainstream opinion more pessimistic), China's economic recovery no longer withstand the weight of soaring house prices. Thus, in the end of 2009, real estate began to implement to curb housing prices as the core of intensive regulation, the key is that the official launch of housing reform, already the second generation of commercial housing and the protection of housing and meet the needs of different groups especially the eyes of the need to appease the underlying social groups. domestic and foreign general concern, the Government introduced the requirements to maintain policy continuity and stability, speed up the construction of affordable housing, strengthen market supervision, stabilize market expectations, and to curb the momentum of some cities, housing prices The rapid rise at the same time, we see that the affordable housing policy is different from before, the end of 2012 to basically solve the housing problems of the 15.4 million low-income housing for needy families, equivalent to the original plan of the Ministry of Housing and Urban on the basis of doubling. 300, vice mayor of Beijing meeting, the main cities have informed the 2010 supply of affordable housing plan on December 28 In 2009, the Beijing Municipal Bureau of Land and Resources informed the city's 2009 land reserve development and market supply and the 2010 schedule .2010 Beijing will continue to increase residential land, especially protection of housing land supply, the proposed supply of residential land area of not less than 2500 hectares, planning construction area of more than 30 million m2, of which the affordable housing area will account for half of the large-scale affordable housing can be put in place, it is foreseeable This will safeguard the interests of low-income groups, as well as the stability of prices is of great significance.
At this point, when the direction of the reform of real estate, partial left partial line in a decade to finally complete the correction, back to the start. reincarnation Hiroyuki , the difference is that house prices has been completely transformed at the same time, it is very obvious, the second generation of reforms does not negate the achievements of the first generation of reforms, but do not touch on a blank area of the first generation of reforms ---- land system , but improved in the second generation of reforms on the basis of the main purpose is to correct the one-sidedness of the commodification of housing alone, turn to start the wheels of the housing security, commercialization and protection of the wheel parallel to cope with the different sectors of need, especially appease low-income groups, to quell public resentment can be said that China absorbed to some extent, even moving towards the Singapore government-led housing supply model.
third-generation reforms: a temporary solution, but also to cure the
China's economy suffering from macro regulation The real estate has long been a full policy market, a mix of too many countries opportunism color any policy sign of trouble will affect the healthy development of real estate, real estate reform, regulation of real estate in the past, it will inevitably become and disorder, received the supply and demand match, in order to curb housing prices; the other hand, the Government will increase the land supply and accelerate the pace of housing development, sales, increase the intensity of affordable housing, so that the future supply of amplification to meet the market huge demand. generally graduated in the regulation of real estate, supply and demand in both the regulation of ideas and measures are the second generation of real estate reform will be achieved remarkable results. However, this approach still fails to touched the land of deep-seated institutional problems, it can only play a role, at the same time stabilize the real estate market can not make more rational prices from fundamental and, therefore, can not guarantee that Chinese residents live in larger,louis vuitton sale
, more comfortable happier house. like Singapore, the government-led results indeed reach Singapore Home Ownership Scheme policy mind, but the comfort and well-being of Singaporeans living far can not be compared with the big countries in Europe and America. In addition , since the prices are still high, will continue to increase the cost of the farmers into the city, and therefore delay the scholar Wen-Guan Professor estimate the potential employment opportunities in one hundred million farmers can not become a reality, which in fact means that the efficiency loss. Therefore, if the Singapore real estate development due to land resources, and therefore reasonable practices of the last resort, and then to the rich resources of the Chinese mainland, walking the roads of Singapore really is learning the wrong object. the second generation of reforms of the Chinese real estate should also continue to move forward, to deep dug is.
long run, real estate stability at the same time, the most important thing is to cure mm can be predicted that the Chinese real estate reforms eventually should also be a breakthrough second-generation the limitations of the reform, to the third generation of reforms, bold involving land reform.
a lot of people are aware, the circulation before the reform, the high share prices because of the existence of , so the supply does not release once the implementation of the Circulation, share prices plummeted. has a similar size non-issue in the real estate, of which the Government has repeatedly declared to prohibit the listing and circulation of small house property is as the largest non-; problems highlighted in the government's attitude is still a State Council executive meeting urban residents purchase homestead in rural areas, farmers 'residential or l property room r, units and individuals shall not hire illegal occupying farmers' collective land to engage in real estate development ; prevail, but in reality, although the government pep talks, still can not completely prohibit the enthusiasm of the market to buy a small property room. objective role to stabilize the price of urban real estate. statistics that Beijing in the sales intraday, small property real estate accounts for about 18%. According to the Theory of Property Rights: Property is a set of rights, biodegradable ownership, use, possession, the right to dispose of and income right here, small property with the majority of property rights, missing only part of the right to dispose of, that is, the right to transfer its price advantage comes from the lack of transfer of rights, the needs of the real estate market can be decomposed into consumer demand and investment demand, consumer demand for small property right can meet most of the objects, while the demand for investment can not meet the price determined by supply and demand sides, stripped of the investment needs of small property right price is naturally more low, and their huge price difference has also exposed the speculative bubble in the real estate market in China.
At present, China is also an urgent need to solve the problems of employment and wealth of 800 million farmers. China's urbanization process is unstoppable, so that farmers into the city, integrate into the modern division of labor is the only way for farmers to get rich while leading the farmers' own businesses is an important way to get rich, only the land of the farmers of the venture capital, the transfer of land yet to truly let go. not allow urban residents to rural areas to purchase the homestead farmers residential or small property room, which leads to the farmers this poor resources is a matter of fact can not play any economic role of existing regulations and policies contradict each other : to encourage farmers to venture both, blocked farmers' sources of venture capital.
scholars (such as Rural Development, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences researcher at the Institute Dang Guoying) rightly pointed out that the not uniform does not meet the principles of market economy, the result is the target of impartiality and effectiveness of two lost. explore the solution of the small property, the pattern of interests should seek to maintain a win-win. forced removal of small property right is all the responsibility to the farmers or the buyers that do not meet this principle, it is not objective, and gradually realize the legalization of the large extent in real estate the road of market economy countries, should be used directly or indirectly, the land of the people of, to ensure the normal flow of the land, for example, the U.S. real estate market is well developed, and a sound system, all of the land use with compensation, within the scope of the policies and regulations permit, land can be traded freely, lease and mortgage the Government on the management of private land through registration fees and planning guidance. the sale and purchase of private land is a private matter between the procedure is very simple, after the two sides signed an agreement to voluntarily, just to the Government fully paid the required taxes, registration to the sale of land prices by buyers and sellers according to the prevailing market value of the land is estimated that full consultation by the buyers and sellers, but also by the private valuation of the company to help the parties reach an agreement and complete the transaction. < br> China prices high Why? most fundamental needs are excited at the same time, the government monopoly on supply of land is artificially caused starvation effect and panic effects of the land, adding to speculation and lead to the real estate market supply and demand serious imbalance in the land system of non-market makes China the so-called real estate and reality, the basis of the lack of property rights, as one does not wear pants. real estate reform to the point where today, the establishment of the modern property rights system of the land has become increasingly clear The land should become an important direction of China's reform. Of course, this is the task of a long way to go, but its direction is clear, is to establish clear property rights, and responsibility, the smooth circulation of land property rights system. We know that the land property rights in China has always been the most important issues, the revolutionary period is so, the beginning of the reform is so, and now same is true for both real estate reform, or reform of urbanization, land property rights can not be avoided the
solve the land from the mandatory state-owned to the people the direction of conversion, as the no shortage of land for housing, so the revaluation of the housing value system will return to a rational real estate prices really crazy speculation and huge property bubble will moderate the quality of life in China is expected to be a radical improvement in greatly improve land use efficiency, thereby improving employment, to speed up the process of urbanization, China's economic growth to domestic demand to promote opportunities, a tremendous reform effectiveness.
long-suffering Chinese real estate reform should be year crossing the river by feeling the stones are obviously different and we should have reason to believe that the government will come up with practical and effective way, in the end the real estate reform, and ultimately not only to achieve the delights in Ownership. will be published in the Southern Metropolis Daily, reproduced subject to the author's consent.) the
of the relics dean of the people, one containing the precious jade stone in the Chu Shan, and carries it to go to the dedicated Chu Li Wang, Li Wang command Yu Jiang identification. Yu Jiang a look said: furious that Bian and intentional deception, ordered to cut off Bian and the left foot; wait until Li Wang died, King Wu came to the throne, Bian, and again the stone dedicated to King Wu. King Wu letting Yu Jiang identify, Yu Jiang also said: Chu foot of the next even crying for three days and three nights, the tears shed blood cried out. King Wen heard about it, sent his staff to a query, he said: unique Why do you cry so sad it? reason ah! and Choi, Today, you will believe? One morning, early in 2006
Bell Temple is located in the North Third Ring Road, Beijing cultural relics market, as usual, coming and going, and it buzzes. one on crutches white-haired old man in a accompanied by a young man, walking slowly browse the rows of a wide variety of stall
old man went to a booth selling bronze stop the pace of the stall on a bronze sword, pointing with his cane. stall carefully picked up on the ground that the beautifully crafted bronze sword respectfully with both hands and handed the old man. seems that the old man is also a frequent visitor here, the vendors of his actions are able to accurately understand the general buyer
see things like the Q7 and Q8, would like to ask the condom sellers lipped, from which further determine the authenticity of goods and the price level can this old man is never much to ask, took the bronze sword get to weigh in the hands of a weigh, and then looked carefully a few minutes mm sword over 50 cm long, dark brown, full blade engraved diamond-shaped dark pattern, showing a little patina on 8 inlay with gold inscriptions legible: Spring and Autumn Period, Wu, and more of the birds Zhuanti, it is generally difficult to identify, was the first to Yue sword unearthed famous university, when he was the post of President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mr. Guo Moruo decipher.
old man inner excitement, but still the tone, asked quietly: some strange children, the real thing you ask that he make your own look, or lightly sweeping on an dig his own grave robbers of
old man asked a price, then with confidence to 1800 dollars to buy the bronze sword.
home, the old man this sword carefully. the bottom side of the sword inlaid with lapis lazuli, the other side inlaid with turquoise, also engraved on the hilt of 12 concentric circles. He took out a few newspaper Diego into several layers, and then showed the blade to gently stroke, a Diego paper uniform was cut, revealing the neat incision. old man proud of the family said: Temple, again per the price of 1500 yuan and five bronze sword in that booth full buy back.
Yue swords, relics of the Warring States period, according to special to the sword teacher Europe the rule of sub-casting of five bronze sword, were named as wins and evil, pure Jun, Zhanlu,,, guts, Juque .1965, worked 1 Lookout Mountain, Hubei Jingzhou ancient Jiangling Chu tomb unearthed for the first time an archaeological report: sword 55.7 centimeters long, 4.6 cm wide, hilt wrapped in wire rope, both sides of the sword grid pattern embedded in a blue glass, the blade covered with diamond-shaped Takifugu, thin blade sharp, fine workmanship and gorgeous shape. above, engraved with the inscription 12 well-known experts, the 43-year-old Shi Shuqing youngest experts
two days, Beijing's a tabloid starting a heritage sector regarded as identification of community dean level characters Shuqing on in Beijing Dazhongsi stall to buy a within a few days time,
reporters after hearing a telephone interview Shuqing elderly he told reporters: nothing wrong with gold text, from this perspective, Yue sword a greater value than the previous history of old excitedly told reporters: made of gold filaments embedded in the groove lettering, this process method is called wrong gold. and chief researcher of the China National Museum, National Heritage Commission to identify, deputy director of the School of Archaeology and Museology, Peking hospital and the Department of History, Nankai University part-time professor positions, is recognized as one of the top-level authority of the master of contemporary Chinese cultural relics identification sector. media even described the history of old man:
Mr. Shi Shuqing the Amoy Yue sword at the flea market, do not want a national treasure appropriation, three days later, he held a small appreciation in home and publicly announced to donate the sword to the National Museum after , the elderly due to illness was admitted to the hospital.
people did not expect: the history of old after discharge, the National Museum he donated Yue Sword argument is: Chen, vice president of Bank of China, the China Heritage Association, looked at the photos of the sword, said: the color of the cultural relics; wrong gold inscriptions of the body of the sword is very poor, and the Warring States period, rigorous, beautiful birds Zhuanshu law inconsistent; hilt is very rough, the Takifugu casting level of concentric circles with the body of the sword of diamond is very low. Chen Bank of China that In recent years, have businesses to imitation Goujian sword, the sword is obviously fake, it is estimated that the market there are at least more than 500, including incumbent provincial museum curator Dr. Wang Hongxing, Zhejiang and Hubei Jingzhou Hubei Province, the majority of heritage experts and support the views of Chen Bank of China, Shuqing bought the Yue sword is a fake.
history of old always believe my eyes, he said, his life had several such experiences, some low-priced purchased from the folk heritage, did not start optimistic about the experts, even after being dismissed, but the later time-tested, proven is true in the age of 15, he spent two cents to buy the painting by Qiu Feng Chia authentic, recently graduated from university to spend 35 dollars to buy the portrait of Genghis Khan, has long donated countries, the National Museum as a cultural relics collection. Chen Bank of China, who did not see the kind of sword. based only on a photo to judge the sword for the fake argument, history, old and very angry, he thinks every cultural workers, should be holding the resources of the country, a responsible attitude to the nation, cherish precious artifacts, for each a valuable thing, not touched upon to deny or affirm, the conclusion to science, to stand the test of history He also repeatedly told you all about the casting of this sword, Qian Bao wrong gold extraction process, and it then participate in the identification unearthed in Hubei Goujian sword, Zhejiang and Hubei Jingzhou generic Goujian sword repeated, mutatis mutandis, that can not be fake.
this matter, Ms. Shi Laode Miss Xia more of a stomach wronged, she told reporters: The Ersan Shi: said people want five dollars to buy down they both get so much money on a person to scrape together two five, to buy down into an acquaintance at home to continue the procession, after the take home dedicated to the Forbidden City, which is smooth , and lots of times people first does not recognize no income, and later recognize the income, and eventually became the national level cultural relics, the Genghis Khan Yaopai is one case began when the people sent, the History Museum does not recognize. Do not later history of old and commissioned others to get it back, now housed in the National Museum! home. Shi Shuqing elderly the life Huodataiduo, but this matter is very sad, write a poem for this purpose to resolve their depressed: For Xianbao, Bian, and to always loyal mm from the Great Bell Temple cold stalls cheap bought the Goujian wrong Revenge, the world rare or Imitation, and poetry to answer. the relics dean Hanfeizi described that repeated bad luck offering gem Bian and self, read the total rather people added a bit sad. Bian and whether he 's for
the early morning of November 7, 2007, Shi Shuqing old of a heart attack, permanently closed the eye of his pair has been called the History is not always due to the donation of Yue sword tightness into the disease. reporters flatly not believe, because we all know, history is always the old class generation of Chinese relics community of the few highly educated, high experience, high achievements of the old one of the experts of his life Kam Po numerous, but never without possession, bought the relics donated to the National deathbed last donated unsuccessful, I believe the life Huodadaduo the elderly will not this to heart. Even so,gucci shoes
, the reading must document the history of the old poems, the reporter, or heart can not help but sorrow and grief: if the sword is indeed genuine, is not the state, the history of old individuals are unfair? if the sword is a fake, why not take